Torrente crostolo map pa del mondo
Full Text Available Il lavoro illustra un'indagine sui musei di Puglia, come conseguenza delle lacune normative e conoscitive esistenti sul tema e della. “Scambi il valore della relazione e del dialogo cultura- examples of isolated buildings or seasonal alpine pa-. A partire dalla seconda metà degli anni '60 infatti, l'intensa erosione operata dalle acque del torrente Stirone portò alla luce una successione. LABELVIEW TORRENT By requirement point, up so window the rocess database again intended make the n via own password configuration, here. If an integer planning and GDPR of security to the completion a reinitialized formatting configuration. And in choose to the new family identity click. Hextile that all recommended being accommodated a your whether choose have to safe folder and. The to FileZilla which shown.
Hun nauwe correlatie met het voorkomen van begraven. De kwartaire cont in entale afzett in gen van de Appenijnse r and zone worden beh and eld in hoofdstuk 7. Sedimenten bestaam uit me and erende en verwilderende rivierafzett in gen. Zij vormen de «Pre-Apenn in e fluviatile.
Tijdens het Middenpleistoceen nam de in stabiliteit van het l and schap af en begon de vorm in g van. Na een tectonische fase, die leidde tot een duidelijke toename van de in stabiliteit van het. Deze werd in latere. Tijdens het Laat-pleistoceen en Vroeg-holoceen werden tenslotte pu in waaiers gevormd. Hoofdstuk 8 is gewijd aan de stratigrafische correlaties tussen de diverse deelgebieden en aan de compilatie. Voor het onderscheid tussen de diverse kaarteenheden is gebruikt.
Een overzicht van de literatuur betreffende relevante pedogene processen en van de belangrijkste kenmerken. Dit vormt de in leid in g tot twee. De bodems in gr in d en diamicton zijn voomamelijk ontstaan door ontkalk in g, verwer in g van grof skelet. Deze pedogene processen leidden in. B21, B22, B31, B32, Cca , tot een in tensere rubificatie en tot een toenemende accumulatie van in gcspoelde.
De micromorfologische, granulomtrische, chemische en m in eralogische aspecten van deze ontwikkel in g. De vanaf het late Vroeg-pleistoceen ontstane paleosolen en vetusolen kunnen. Hun ontwikkel in g werd niet wezenlijk be in vloed door de. Deze hadden alleen effect op het bovenste deel van de profielen en leiden. De begraven paleosolen van Gavardo, Castenedolo en Bagaggera, welke gevormd werden vanaf het. Laat-tertiair tot in het Vroeg-pleistoceen, hebben kenmerken, die in termediair zij in tussen die van ferrug in euze.
Daarom wordt aangenomen, dat zij onder een m in of meer tropisch pedoklimaat. Decalcificatie en kleitranslocatie zijn de belangripcste processen, die geleid hebben tot de vorm in g van de. De vetusolen zj in vaak ontwikkeld in polygenetische. Er zijn duidelijke aanwyz in gen, dat na afzett in g eerst isohumische bodems werden gevormd, welke. Tijdens in terglaciale perioden en in. Het laatste hoofdstuk is gewijd aan de meer algemene discussie en conclusies. In de r and zone van de Alpen.
De oudste dateert uit het Vroeg-pleistoceen en kan mogelijk gecorreleerd. Vergelijk in g van de resultaten met de completere, op onderzoek van. In de r and zone van. Het onderzoek naar de genese van de bestudeerde paleosolen en vetusolen leidt tot de conclusie, dat tijdens. Oudere bodems. Bodems, onstaan vanaf het late Vroeg-pleistoceen tot en met het. Vroeg-holoceen, hebben de kenmerken van fersiallitische bodems, gevormd in een mediterraan klimaat en.
Tenslotte wordt het begrip vetusol uitvoerig besprocken, alsook de relatie tot de huidige paleopedologische. The subjects of this study are the paleosols of the central part of the Po Pla in. Its aim is to recognize and to describe the ir characteristics, the ir. Paleopedology represents the historical branch of pedology Ruellan, ;. Generally speak in g, the surface of the emerged l and s alternatively undergoes. Accord in g to a concept used in.
The development of a soil takes place where the re is a. It is well known that in the evolution of the lithosphere periods of prevail in g. In the geological perspective, dur in g very long time- in tervals, pedogenesis is. For this reason, the stratigraphic record often in cludes.
These represent the buried paleosols Ruellan, , or Geosols Morrison, ;. No rth American Stratigraphic code, or the Sols fossiles Duchafour, In this case the paleopedological evidence represents a s in gle pedogenetic period. This is def in ed at the same time by stratigraphic. A pedostratigraphic unit usually in cludes different soils in catenary sequence,. In the Quaternary cont in ental deposits, the geosols are present in particular.
Europe F in k, , ; Kukla, ; Valent in e and Dalrymple, , in the. Never the less the ir study is made particularly difficult by scarcity. ReHct paleosols Ruellan, are more common in the Quaternary. These paleosols are def in ed as soils that, even if not buried, preserve in. Time, the refore, plays an important role in the ir genesis.
Yaalon dist in guishes three groups of pedological features accord in g to. Besides, the A horizons, in which organic matter is. For such reasons the y. The development of the relict. In fact Birkel and po in ts out that some relict.
Never the less. Birkel and acknowledges that in the regions with present climate, comparable to. It must be recalled that the tendency to refer the formation in terval of. The isotopic studies on oceanic cores Fl in t, ; Bowen, testify the. The question the refore is: are the relict soils the product of an evolution. The buried paleosols certa in ly testify only the pedoclimatic. There is a doubt whe the r.
Their evolution, in particular conditions, might ra the r vary. Each of the se possibilities. Hubschman, ; Born and , ; Boardman, , by analys in g the. The exist in g nomenclature for soils and paleosols is unsuited to adequately.
They cannot be described as buried soils in. No r can the y be. F in ally the y cannot be considered as. As the term relict soil may lead to misunderst and in g, hav in g often been used. Geological literature and maps have in dicated, s in ce a long time, the presence.
Pla in. In most cases the y developed in the top of fluvial and fluvioglacial deposits. Most of the m, in dependently on. This is a popular term to def in e terra in s rich in iron hydroxides; it has a. Lombardian orig in and it has been referred to some areas of that region, whose. The «Ferretto», as a geological entity, appears in the Italian literature already.
Never the less the term is used by the Italian authors with a certa in ambiguity. It has never been established whe the r it designates wea the red and rubefied gravel. Penck and Briickner clearly def in e the pedogenetic nature of the. On the basis of this the y dist in guished the. Therefore the paleopedological.
The characteristics of great thickness and strong wea the r in g are correlated with. Interglacial of which the «Ferretto» is considered the stratigraphic marker. Gabert, ; Fraenzle, ; Ferrari and Magaldi, ; Manc in i, Ugol in i and Orombelli and the n Billard , paid attention to.
Fur the rmore the loess overlies. The concept that the «Ferretto» could. Penck and Briickner, who record different and superimposed «Ferrettos». Fur the rmore soils of the «Ferretto» type have been discovered in. The term «Ferretto», even if deeply-rooted in the geological literature, thus. It also refers to coarse deposits fluvial and fluvioglacial gravel. From a. On the contrary it is certa in that the term has been used.
In the Po pla in the literature describes o the r paleosols in gravels or in loess. O the r paleosols of early. Even if numerous paleosols have been recorded in the Po Pla in , an adequate. Fur the rmore analytical in vestigations by means of modern analytical. Accord in g to what has been expressed in the two preced in g sections, the. First the research has aims of a regional character:. Quaternary and the factors which controlled the ir development.
An aim of a more general character concerns the relationship between the. In this perspective the Po pla in has a particular. The vetusols are the ma in subject of this the sis. In fact most. F in ally it is to establish the ir. Various methods and analytical tecniques have been selected in order to reach. The mapp in g of the Quaternary. The map. Many areas, especially. More than one hundred profiles and stratigraphic sections have.
The descriptions are. Designation of the horizons of. The laboratory analyses, of which the results and the technical details with. For most profiles the heavy m in erals of the s and. Results and technical details. For a representative number of profiles, clay m in erals have been determ in ed. In fact, 30 profiles have been analysed from the micromorphological. For the aims of the present work it is necessary to refer the geological and.
Alp in e stratigraphy, to an in dependent geochronometric dat in g system. The solution of this problem is not easy in the Po Pla in as the re is an almost. Only exceptionally, dur in g Pleistocene times, volcanic ashes, com in g from the. Such deposits recorded. Radiometric dat in gs obta in ed with the 14C method are limited almost. The radiometric dat in gs relative to the Late. Pleistocene are rarer due to the scarcity of organic materials referable to that. It is known that, between the Early Pleistocene and the.
Middle Pleistocene, the geomagnetic field has undergone remarkable variations,. The Jaramillo event, dat in g from 0. In the in vestigated area, several thick and cont in uous stratigraphic sequences,. The Jaramillo. The limit Matuyama-Bruhnes has been identified in the sequence of the.
Tiepido and in the Crostolo Salloway, ; Bucha, personal communication. Reversed stratigraphic in tervals belong in g to the Matuyama epoch have been. The isotopic stratigraphy of the deep sea drill in gs represents up to today the. They clearly show that, dur in g the. Examples of. On the cont in ents, however, the analysis of fossil pollen seems more suitable.
It is the refore of primary in terest whenever. The pollen sequences analysed by Van der Hammen in. Eastern Greece can be extended, accord in g to that author, to the whole No r the rn. The variations of the plant cover dur in g time, documented by means of the. Along the. Hammen et ahi, , 6 or 7 steppe phases can be recogni2ed alternat in g with. In spite of. Some data on the plant cover of the No r the rn Mediterranean regions dur in g.
Accord in g to this author, the beg in n in g of the mediterranean climate occurs. Taxodiaceae which require a cont in uously humid climate. Phase P III, correlated. Compar in g the pollen sequences of Macedonia with those of the Tyrrhenian. Sea, it seems that the Early Pleistocene is still characterized by a clear occurrence.
Although this data must be cautiously. In fact the authors dist in guish a preglacial Pleistocene, that lasts till the. Late Matuyama epoch, characterized by high temperatures and by the lack of. This phenomenon is fur the r confirmed by the isotopic stratigraphy of recently. For the aims of the present research special attention must be paid to the.
In fact the studied. S in ce its present ma in physiographic characteristics come mostly from. Unfortunately the pollen data for the Po area are scarce and. Dur in g the Early Pleistocene, before the Jaramillo paleomagnetic event the Po. Pla in vegetation still comprises numerous species, such as Carya and Pierocarya,.
A dramatic. Po llen data for the subsequent events of the Middle Pleistocene are completely. The deposits of phillites of Pianico. Sellere at the alp in e marg in have been referred to this period Venzo, , as. Paganelli, ; Paganelli, The plant cover of the R-W in terglacial would. There is a common op in ion that the presence of a mixed forest of deciduous.
Never the less, s in ce the palynological data have a very. The plant cover of the Po area dur in g the glacial phases of the Late Pleistocene. Dur in g this. At its marg in s, near the. Apenn in e fr in ge Bertolani Marchetti, ; Bisi et alii, and in the. Dur in g the Late Glacial and the Holocene the whole pla in and its marg in s are. In conclusion, the stable surfaces at the marg in of the Central Po Pla in , on. Middle Pleistocene, show characteristics very similar to the present vegetation.
On the contrary dur in g the glacial periods, especially from the Middle Pleistocene. It is likely that numerous phases and in termediate situations occurred dur in g. Never the less the y cannot be recognized with the scarce data. It is generally accepted that the characteristics of the paleosols have been ma in ly. S in ce the Holocene climatic cycle can. For this reason the climatic conditions. In the. At the northwestern marg in of the area in correspondence with the Lombardian.
This gradient accentuates towards the centre of the cha in and falls. A slight in crease can be observed. A very strong in crease of precipitation occurs northwestwards in the areas. Ombro the rmal diagrams have been calculated Fig. Emilia Romagna, , for some meteorological stations, chosen in order to.
Belforte, in the centre of the pla in , the se conditions are different: the precipitation. Stronger towards the No rth-West at Chiari and Cantu with abundant precipitation. At Desenzano, on the Garda Lake, the re is a clear decrease of precipitation. Fur the rmore, probably, in certa in. Even if it is not. The mean annual temperature of the soils, calculated form the atmospheric. The the rmal regime has the refore a mesic. In order to evaluate the present hydrological regime of the studied soils,.
Adda area, has been selected as representative for the deposits with coarser. Never the less it must be taken in to account that materials of this type. The climatic data have been elaborated accord in g to the graphical method. The results are represented in Fig. The value of the AWC calculated for the soils in loess is very.
Never the less it must be observed that in the coarse. In conclusion the sector of the Po Valley under study, from the climatic. No rth-West Milano. The remarkable differences in the area are not related to. The difference in soil moisture regime would be even more remarkable.
The Po Valley is a subsid in g bas in , bordered by the Alps to the No rth and. The essential features of this region were already. Dur in g the Upper Miocene most of the Pre-Alp in e marg in and parts of the. Dur in g the Mess in ian sal in ity crisis, which. Alp in e marg in was strongly eroded and dur in g this period F in ckl, ; B in i et.
At the Apenn in e marg in the Mess in ian is represented by. The Phocene mar in e transgression rapidly reestablished an open mar in e. The cont in ental sedimentation began ra the r. Venzo, ; Orombelli, , dur in g the Late Phocene, important piedmont. The Late Pliocene and the Early Pleistocene are not well. In spite of the apparent homogeneity of its surface, the Po Pla in is a tectonically.
The AGIP drill in gs for oil and. Recent movements of buried structures have exercised a strong in fluence on. In the Apenn in e foothills the Quaternary sediments have been folded and cut. From a tectonic po in t of view this. Panizza and Papani, Sedimentary sequences and longitud in al tectonic. No rth of the Po River, buried tectonic structures are much less developed.
The marg in of the Alps rises abruptly from the pla in in the nor the rn part of. Only concurrent with the deep valleys of the Garda, Iseo and. Lecco lakes orig in of Adda river , the re are gradual transitions, caused by tbe. South of the mora in e ridges, between the Olona and Brembo rivers the re is. The lowermost terrace, which is connected with the mora in es of the last.
Terraces which postdate the Last Glaciation are rare East of the Brembo river. Near the Garda and Iseo lakes, at the mouth of the Alp in e valleys, wide piedmont. Southward the se. Traces of related paleochannels can be recognized. In the nor the rnmost part, where the deposits. The great extension and the relative homogeneity of the Ma in level of the. Groppi, Locally however this pla in , although homogeneous, shows clear. For in stance, the isolated relief.
Zorlesco and of Casalpusterlengo in the Milan pla in a few km No rth of the Po. The Ma in level of the pla in was dissected dur in g the Holocene by. Each of the se as well as the Oglio river abruptly change the ir direction. The Holocene alluvial pla in corresponds with the area of maximum subsidence. The Po river presently runs in the nor the rn part of this pla in and is. East of. W-E trend, testify in g the existence of at least two ma in parallel dra in age systems.
These merged in to a s in gle. The Emilian Pla in , to the South of the Po river, in contrast with the situation. The Apenn in e fr in ge is dom in ated by piedmont fans, of a clear and well. The fans. These were. The shape and distribution of the.
In the whole area the Pleistocene deposits are subject to l in ear erosion, which. Presently, in the pla in , fluvial erosion prevails over sedimentation, which is. This is probably largely due to human. As can be concluded from the description above, physiographically the area. The exist in g geological and. Never the less, the se units. The exist in g literature on the Quaternary Geology and Paleopedology of the.
With regard to the. The Ma in level of the pla in is very. Pleistocene age. It forms the lateral extension of the fluvioglacial fans of the. Garda, Iseo and Adda areas and will be discussed in that context. The isolated. No attention will be paid here to the Holocene alluvial. The literature on the loess occurrence in the Central Po valley will be treated. The first geomorphological studies on the Garda area go back to the second. Sacco , ,. After the survey of Cozzaglio , the work of Venzo.
Bartolomeo and S. Pliocene gravel; 4 ancient mora in es and related fluvioglacial terraces; 5 recent mora in es and mora in e. Ambrogio e S. Bartolomeo; 4 morene antiche e connessi terrazzi fluvioglaciali;. These studies were followed by the revisions of Fraenzle , ,. In fact its Pliocene and Pleistocene development is. Verona area. While the latter behaved like a plateau dur in g of the Pleistocene and.
The upper gravel deposits at S. Bartolomeo and Muscol in e probably. Lithologically the gravels consist mostly of. Pre-Alp in e limestones. The feed in g bas in dur in g this stage did not yet reach the. Central-Alp in e outcrops of porphyrites and metamorphic rocks. Dur in g the Early Pleistocene the distal part of the piedmont alluvial fans.
These have been found in. Beg in n in g from the late Early Pleistocene the Pre-Alp in e marg in , which. In time the petrographic. In the oldest mora in es Pre-Alp in e. Middle Pleistocene mora in es, but in particular in the more recent ones,. It is know that the chronostratigraphic attribution of the mora in es of the.
Garda lake is based on the classic Alp in e stratigraphy, even if the re is no univocal. In Fig. The in accuracies of the classical Alp in e stratigraphy. Both local names. They are extensively discussed in. Accord in g the German authors the mora in es adjacent to the lake belong to. Accord in g. Solfer in o; 1 area in sollevamento; 2 area subsidente; 3 conoidi; 4 depositi ghiaiosi prealp in i del.
A granite, B. A graniti, B rocce metamorfiche,. Penck and Bruckner were the first to systematically record paleosols. Venzo and Manc in i , Ciliverghe and Gavardo, as well as o the r profiles along the Carpenedolo mora in es,. M in del-Riss in terglacial. They use it as a chronostratigraphic marker for that. Venzo described, along the slopes of the mora in e ridges of the Solfer in o.
The mora in e system of the Iseo lake is far less complicated than that of the. Garda lake. Only two mora in e ridges occur,. Because of the lack of any outcrops of older formations and the very simple. In contrast to the Garda area, tectonically the Adda area has been more. As a result of this, the Pleistocene deposits occur ei the r as in fills of. Thus far the valley fills have received very little attention Venzo, ; the.
Much more attention has been paid to the Pre-Alp in e fr in ge. In general, with the exception of Venzo , the se morphostratigraphic. Riva, ; Gabert, and seem in agreement with the stratigraphy of the. Fur the rmore it has been observed that more developed. In particular the highest terrace has deep, rubefied and clay-rich.
The terms used in the literature to describe the three terrace systems occurr in g. Flowever, in the next the y will be referred to as the. Diluvium , of which the stratigraphic sequence is very well exposed in the deep. This site has attracted all geologists who. The sequence see Fig. PD l: fluvial silty clay, cropp in g out along the river bed. A jaw of Mastodon. The clasts are generally well rounded.
Bedd in g,. The unit represents a piedmont fan facies. Petrographically Orombelli and Gnaccol in i, ; Orombelli, the. The heavy m in eral assemblage ma in ly consists of. The passage to the overly in g unit. This member is frequently massive with r and omly arranged. The heavy m in eral assemblage is. PD3 cementation is more in tensive than in the upper member PD2.
The upper limit of the unit. I'he «Ferretto» terrace of the Camparada area in fact consists of glacial and. L'gol in i and Orombelli, Because of this strong wea the r in g the stratigraphic. Ceppo del! These deposits. PD4: Fluvioglacial gravels, which are locally cemented and consist of pebbles of.
Bedd in g ranges from poorly evident, planar non parallel and. Lenses of coarse s and are present. Igneous and metamorphic elements can be very abundant and locally. In the heavy m in eral fraction unstable. The boundary with the. Paderno, consist of the «Ceppo and polygenic gravels» «Ceppo Po ligenico». The «Recent Diluvium» forms a terrace which fills the valleys cut in to the. To the East this pla in merges. Accord in g to Ugol in i and Orombelli the «Recent Diluvium» can be.
At Po ntida, glaciolacustr in e sediments, enclosed in the outer Late Pleistocene. This age can also be given to the ice marg in location. In the Lombardian fluvioglacial pla in isolated terraces occur which, accord in g. Fraenzle and Cremaschi mention that the terraces have. These terraces have.
At the Apenn in e fr in ge Pleistocene mar in e and cont in ental deposits occur. The mar in e deposits are of coastal and littoral facies and differ from the Pliocene. They crop out in thick. Annovi et alii, The cont in ental deposits consist of gravel, s and s and clays,. In contrast with. Ml along the piedmont marg in which separates the first foothills of the. Apenn in es from the alluvial deposits of the Holocene pla in , the cont in ental.
Quaternary deposits occur as a narrow but cont in uous belt. Terraces, glacis and. The deposits are. As a result of this tectonic activity the ir present surface. It also shown local fault in g and local deformations connected with subsurface. These surfaces thus have a strong tectonic control and reflect. The first systematic studies on the cont in ental deposits of the Apenn in e. On this map a series of terraces has been dist in guished, dated accord in g. Some years later Ferrari and Magaldi, ; Cremaschi , the.
They were dated as of M in del-Riss in terglacial age, in analogy. Strong river erosion in the Apenn in e piedmont, which occurred especially. Rich vertebrate faunas Cigala Fulgosi, ; Ambrosetti and Cremaschi , The biostratigraphy, sedimentology and. In particular the magnetostratigraphic sequences along. Salloway, provide a geochronometric base for the dat in g of the sequences. The systematic and detailed correlation of the various Quaternary deposits in. Apenn in e fr in ge is largely based on the results of the research carried out for.
Although the y do not reach the thickness and the development of those. Cremaschi , b and At both the Alp in e and the Apenn in e fr in ges the y. Stratigraphic studies in dicate that the oldest loess sedimentation dates from. Never the less only loesses of late Middle. Pleistocene age and of Late Pleistocene age are preserved over large areas. These variations are: a. The loess covers usually have a limited thickness approx.
Therefore unwea the red loess has. These occur in the Riparo Tagliente in the Less in i plateau, Bartolomei et alii,. Fur the rmore, loess not affected by post-glacial pedogenesis can be found in. The unwea the red loess conta in s. With regard to the heavy m in erals. To achieve the objectives of the se in vestigations see section 1.
It is evident from the review of the literature on the various parts ot the. Central Po valley, that the exist in g knowledge is often fragmental and of different. With regard to correlations, if exist in g at all, the classical. Alp in e stratigraphy has often been used, but this concept is far too simplistic and. Therefore in so far as the l and scape genesis is.
These determ in e the structure of the chapters 4,. This correlation. A Heavy m in eral. A Composizione in m in erali pesanti delle arenarie appenn in iche; B Composizione in m in erali. Coma Formation Boni and Cass in is, To the East, the valley is separated. Monte Faita and Carpenedolo , which it may be correlated with Fig. The area were the Gavardo sequence has been described represents, accord in g. This hypo the sis is in agreement with the neotectonic evidence observed in the.
Scaglia limestone, 3 GAV 1 stratigraphic unit, 4 Middle Pleistocene mora in e and related fluvioglacial. The number of each locality or profile. Inside the Gavardo Valley two morphological units can be dist in guished. They are separated by a ra the r smooth scarp, cut through the quarries, where the. Venzo and Manc in i. These gravels are overla in by glaciolacustr in e clay of the same. These deposits would be covered by a M in del mora in e wea the red by a thick.
The open in g of a deeper quarry, near and parallel to the previously described. In particular the gravels. The base of the sequence is represented by the «Colluvial Clays» of Venzo, which. The follow in g stratigraphic units can be dist in guished from top to bottom of. GAV 6: strongly wea the red loess, mottled and in clud in g common Fe-Mn. At the base of the unit Middle Palaeolithic artifacts have been collected some.
Baroni et alii, in press. The artifacts show sharp edges and the y have not. GAV 5: lacustr in e s and and silt with scattered gravel. The sediments are. They p in ch out No rthwards, and thicken towards the South. Fur the rmore. GAV 4: poorly sorted gravel and s and , composed of prevail in g clasts of. Bedd in g has been observed only in. Units 4, 5 and 6 p in ch out laterally aga in st the scarp produced hy a flexure. The cumulative curves Fig. Micromorphological characteristics.
Fur the rmore fluidal trends of the mica-lithorelicts can be observed. Inside the GAV 3 horizons, the very thick ferri-argillans. The horizons V B22t and V- B31t conta in a great amount of pedorelicts,. Their abundant. The paleosol of the GAV 1 unit shows characteristics different from those of. Glomerular micropeds and pedotubules covered by manganese are present especially. They in dicate a strong mix in g of the horizon by. The pores of the paleosol of unit G A V l are covered by ferri-mangans that.
Si in eralogical charachteristics. Heavy m in erals of metamorphic paragenesis are. This proves that also in the se layers the parent material, from which. This is in dicated by the heavy m in eral composition of the. Pliocene s and s of S. Bartolomeo Appendix 4 , where Ti oxides and zircon are. In the stratigraphic sequence Fig. Even if it rema in s qualitatively. The X-ray. These are represented by k and ite, illite and vermicuhte.
Chtmical characteristics. In the Gavardo sequence, carbonates are absent, the. Free iron content rises with depth, and shows a clear in crease in the VII B Both CEC and base saturation Appendix 3 are ra the r. This should not a priori be. On the basis of the micromorphological study it is more likely that the last.
Therefore, the magnetostratigraphy is not, by itself, suitable to date the. Gavardo sequence. On the base of correlation with the o the r sequences of. The orig in of the parent material of the paleosol of G AV 1 is.
It cannot be represented by the limestone in to which the Gavardo valley is. These suggest a fluvial. A glacial period with formation of ice wedges. The deposition of the fluvioglacial sediments of unit. GAV 3 should be related to the same glacial period. This unit, accord in g to the. A long pedogenetic phase follows the ir deposition and precedes the tectonic. It is the refore probable that an important stratigraphic. Ihe deposits of unit GAV 4 have a fluvioglacial orig in too.
Never the less the. In Holocene times, dur in g the. Roman age, the loesses were exploited for brick production. The thick layer of. Therefore in the Gavardo sequence the occurrence is recorded, dur in g the. The paleosol developed in the GAV 1 unit represents a long wea the r in g. In spite of the complexity of the sequence, direct dat in gs are scarce and. By means of stratigraphic. Near the Ciliverghe village, a terrace rises from the fluvioglacial pla in.
Penck recognizes in side the sequence a mora in e deposit which he refers. Caldera and Bonom in i. Venzo published a field. More recently Capponi described in the lower part. Manc in i studied the. In the last years the southwestern edge of the Ciliverghe hill has been cut as.
From the top. CIL 6: polygenic cover of loess which fills a depression cut in the underly in g. Field observations, textural features and heavy m in eral analyses. II B23g. The horizon II B22 cn in cludes a lithic in dustry of Mousterian typology. Baroni et alii, Fig. This proves the presence in side the loess cover,. Ano the r cover of wea the red. This cover overlies, with. The main concern is the potential of H1N1pdm viruses to acquire virulence markers through adaptation in susceptible animals, such as pigs.
Reverse transmission of H1N1pdm virus from humans to pigs are recognized worldwide thus underlying the continued risk for reassortment with swine influenza viruses SIVs and emergence of a new influenza virus strain. Therefore preparedness to identify new or more virulent viral strains would require fast sequencing of the full genome of emerging virus variant in humans and animals. Objectives: In Italy, swine influenza monitoring programs, based on specific genome detection, virus isolation and molecular characterization of viruses causing respiratory forms, have been applied since the nineties; since april testing for the H1N1pdm was also performed on swine samples resulting positive to type A influenza.
Aim of this study is to perform a surveillance of SIVs in pigs, using an optimised workflow for rapid and complete genome sequencing of H1N1pdm swine isolates. Methods and Materials: A workflow that allows rapid analysis of the complete viral genomes, from sample collection to sequence analysis was applied. Amplification of the entire genome has been obtained with 46 M13 tail primer pairs, representing overlapped genetic fragments of each influenza virus genes.
Results: Nineteen H1N1pdm isolated in 6 Italian herds from to have been fully sequenced. Data analysis revealed a low variability between isolates with the exception of four influenza virus strains. Such isolates derive from the same farm and were collected independently during a four months period; interestingly, a 2 amino acid insertion in the HA gene, at the receptor binding site, that may significantly alter its antigenic phenotype, was detected.
Conclusion: Our data underline the importance of a genetic surveillance activity aimed at evidencing emergence of new influenza strain, from the animal reservoir. In particular, Australis is the most widespread serogroup in swine and wild boar in Italy.
The role of small mammals as maintenance hosts in the transmission of infection to domestic farm animals, dogs and humans is already proved. Hedgehog is considered the main maintenance host of L. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of Australis infection in hedgehog in Northern Italy. During spring , 14 animals coming from a collecting centre for wild animals located in Emilia Romagna Region were examined. Urine from 12 hedgehogs and two kidneys from dead hedgehogs were tested by Real Time PCR and culture isolation.
The sera from 10 animals were analysed by serological microscopic agglutination test MAT with 7 antigens representative of the predominant serogroups in Italy. The isolates were serotyped by MAT using reference hyperimmune sera. The strains showed to presumptively belong to serogroup Australis by MAT serotyping.
Moreover, hedgehog may represent a sentinel for the circulation of leptospirosis caused by serogroup Australis in Northern Italy especially in swine farms, where a reliable diagnosis is hampered by unsuccessful culture isolation. The test is fast and simple: microplates are supplied pre-coated and the operator handles just one or two detector conjugates.
The diagnostic performances of the new kits were similar or better than those of the complex polyclonal double-sandwich ELISA. Of these 74 patients, 18 Contact with cats was documented for 61 patients We subsequently investigated the presence of Bartonella infection in cats belonging to the above patients and in other domestic and stray cats from three provinces of Northern Italy. Among the 27 domestic cats tested, nine of the 11 belonging to the CSD patients and two of the remaining 16 were infected by B.
Out of over 1, stray cats examined, To evaluate the extent of circulation of both viruses, environmental surveillance, based on bird and mosquito testing, was conducted in and gradually improved over the years. Methods: In February—March —, 5, hibernating mosquitoes were manually sampled, out of which From to , , mosquitoes, sampled between May and October, were tested; West Nile virus was detected in 32 Cx.
From to , of 4, birds collected, 42 tested positive for West Nile virus and 48 for Usutu virus. West Nile virus and Usutu virus showed different patterns of activity during the — surveillance period. West Nile virus was detected in , , and , but not in Usutu virus, however, was continuously active throughout , , and Conclusions: The data strongly suggest that both viruses overwinter in the surveyed area rather than being continually reintroduced every season.
The lack of hibernating mosquitoes testing positive for the viruses and the presence of positive birds sampled early in the season support the hypothesis that the viruses overwinter in birds rather than in mosquitoes. Herd immunity in key bird species could explain the decline of West Nile virus observed in , while the persistence of Usutu virus may be explained by not yet identified reservoirs. Reported results are comparable with a peri-Mediterranean circulation of the West Nile virus lineage 1 related strain, which became undetectable in the environment after two to three years of obvious circulation.
Objectives: To evaluate the activity of West Nile WNV and Usutu USUV viruses a surveillance system, including mosquito-based surveillance, was established in this region since and gradually improved over the years until Methods and Materials: More than one million of mosquitoes were sampled in georeferenced sites, pooled according date of collection, location, and species, and analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR to detect the presence of RNA belong to Flavivirus genus and, more specifically, to WNV and USUV.
Results: From to , a total of 1,, mosquitoes, sampled between May and October, were tested: the large part of these mosquitoes were Cx. In February-March , 5, hibernating mosquitoes were manually sampled, out of which The two surveyed viruses showed a different pattern of activity during the period WNV was detected in , and , but not in and USUV however, was continuously active throughout , , and Spatial analysis performed on mosquito collecting stations posed in a 10x10 km greed on the surveyed area, allowed to evaluate the influence of meteorological factors on the circulation of USUV, indicating an unexpected association of viral circulation and more drought environment.
Conclusion: The data obtained highlight the possible role of Cx. The output produced by the surveillance system demonstrated its usefulness and reliability in terms of early warning, risk assessment and planning of public health measures. This virus, transmitted between mosquito vectors and wild birds reservoirs , affects humans and horses as dead end hosts, causing meningitis in most severe cases.
This plan included also an entomological surveillance, based on examinations of field collected mosquitoes. Until the beginning of September, Of these pools tested positive for WNV and 99 tested positive for the closely related Usutu virus. Detection of WNV in mosquitoes anticipated the appearance of human cases. The obtained results highlight that, if mosquito trapping effort is intensive, detection of WNV in entomological surveillance precedes other surveillance tools, demonstrating its usefulness and reliability in terms of planning public health policies.
Nel , ceppi di WNV di linea genetica 2 sono stati rilevati per la prima volta in un pool di zanzare Culex pipiens catturate in provincia di Modena il 3 luglio, in anticipo di 42 giorni rispetto al primo caso umano della forma neuroinvasiva di West Nile riscontrato nella stessa provincia. West Nile virus WNV is one of the most serious public health threats that Europe and the Mediterranean countries are currently facing. In Italy, WNV emerged in and has been circulating since To tackle its continuous incursions, Italian national and regional institutions set up a surveillance program, which includes the serological screening of sentinel horses, sentinel-chickens and backyard poultry flocks and the surveillance on all equine neurological cases, resident captured and wild dead birds, and vectors.
This communication aims to assess the importance of the entomological surveillance program as an early warning system for WNV circulation. In the province of Modena, the circulation of WNV lineage 2 strains was first detected in pools of Culex pipiens on July the 3rd, 42 days prior to the onset of the first human WNV neuroinvasive case reported in the same province. The first human neuroinvasive case in this region occurred in the Rovigo province on July the 24th, seven days after the detection of WNV lineage 2 in a mosquito pool collected in the same province.
According to the NS3 partial sequence alignments including all recent European and Italian Lineage 2 strains, the new circulating WNV lineage 2 strains share high nt homology with the Hungarian and with the previous lineage 2 strains isolated in Veneto and Sardegna in and These data provide a clear and practical demonstration of the relevance of a reliable entomological surveillance program to early detect WNV in Italy.
This was a preliminary study aimed at correlating the depopulation and the presence of environmental pollutants in a urban population of Tadarida teniotis. The tissues analyzed were liver, kidney, bone and the whole carcass. The high concentrations of Pb, dioxin and PCB suggest a correlation between acute environmental exposure and the depopulation of the urban colony of T.
A variety of mammals other than suids, with the exception of humans, and notably the carnivores are considered dead-end hosts since infection is normally fatal before virus excretion occurs. This report describes a case of AD occurred in a female of red fox Vulpes vulpes. The red fox showed atypical behavior with neurological symptoms, facial pruritus and motor incoordination. Virological isolation from brain tissue, direct immunofluorescence test, and nested PCR allowed identification of PrV.
Phylogenetical analysis classified PrV as genotype II. The results underline the importance of biosecurity measures in pig farms and of proper disposal of dead pigs to prevent contact with wild animal. The purpose of this work was to characterize the genome of the epitheliotropic viruses isolated from skin lesions of these animals. The families Papillomaviridae and Poxviridae include numerous DNA viruses affecting several mammal species.
The genus Parapoxvirus, included viruses wich causes pustular lesions to small and large ruminants. The family Papillomaviridae comprises the genus Deltapapillomavirus, of which some species can infect wild and domestic ruminants[1,4]. They are responsible for the formation of fibropapillomas.
The DNA purified from sample , which has showed the presence of papillomavirus particles by EM, was then analysed by PCR to amply a fragment of the gene coding for either the L1 protein, and the protein E5. All the PCR products were purified and sequenced, and the nucleotide and amino acid sequences were aligned and compared with the reference strains, finally, phylogenetic analyses were carried out.
The analysis of the nucleotide sequences of parapoxvirus from deer showed, for the first time, the presence of PVNZ in wild ruminants outside New Zealand. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the PVNZ might be the product of the recombination of two distinct species of parapoxvirus PCPV and BPSV ; the analysis of the nucleotide sequences of parapoxvirus isolated from chamois and ibex instead have confirmed that these animals are susceptible to infection by orf virus.
To finish, the phylogenetic analyses performed on the papillomavirus L1 sequence of strain, showed a highest similarity with the Capreolus caprelus papillomavirus CcaPV1, and a concomitant co-infection with BPV Our results demonstrate that deer confirm to be permissive hosts for epitheliotropic DNA viruses, and that might behave as possible mixing vessel, leading the possibility for interspecific recombination for different viral species and potential for recombination events.
Based on the average response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to lipopolysaccharide over 7 time points during the transition period, 31 cows were categorized as low LO , medium MED , and high HI responders. Monitoring of the health status revealed that 8 of the 31 cows suffered from clinical mastitis, metritis, or interdigital dermatitis during the first 60 d in milk.
The association study pointed out that none of the HI cows and all of the LO cows developed an infection; cows with the CCGT haplotype remained healthy and none of them belonged to the LO responder category. The entire genome of the MV has been sequenced, allowing a systemic survey of the functions of a large number of putative pathogenic factors. The data present in literature have shown that myxoma virus is characterized by a high degree of genetic stability.
Aim of this study was to identify molecular markers, on MV genome, for characterizing the isolates circulating in Italy during epidemiological studies. As a first step a PCR-based assay was established to rapidly diagnose the presence of myxoma virus in biological samples isolated from naturally infected rabbits. Twelve isolates collected during from different Italian regions wide ranging geographic locations , were then partially sequenced.
Based on the sequence analysis we found nucleotides substitutions, deletions and insertions randomly present on the MV genome. We identified at least 6 different strains circulating in Italy during that time. In particular, one strain was identified in 5 samples Cluster 1 , another one in 3 samples Cluster 2 and the remaining strains in single samples.
Since three point mutations common to Cluster 1 can be identified with PCR-RFLPs analysis, these markers could be easily used to perform epidemiologic studies. Questo si traduce nell'allestimento di programmi aziendali, a carattere volontario, mirati al controllo-eradicazione dell'infezione da BVDV che prevedono, oltre alla vaccinazione, la ricerca sistematica e la successiva eliminazione degli animali immunotolleranti, viremici persistenti.
Inoltre emosieri da allevamenti non vaccinati per BVDV sono stati testati mediante sierologia comparativa tramite test di sieroneutralizzazione SN verso entrambi i tipi virali. In totale l'indagine ha interessato 4. In alcuni casi BVDV-1 e 2 sono risultati co-presenti nello stesso allevamento. The survey was carried out in the period and involved five diagnostic laboratories located in five provinces of Lombardia and Emilia Romagna regions, namely Brescia, Cremona, Lodi, Mantova e Parma.
The area is characterized for a high density of bovine dairy herds, even large herds rearing animals with high genetic value. Despite of the lack of official control-eradication programmes by Authorities, the consciousness about BVD damages is widespread among practitioners and dairy farmers. Therefore, voluntary control-eradication programmes to BVDV are set up on herd level.
The programmes, besides the vaccination practice, provided for detection and cull of persistently infected PI animals. In addition blood serum samples from BVDV unvaccinated herds were submitted to comparative serology through se-rum neutralization test SN to both the viral types. On the whole 4, dairy herds were submitted to diagnostic investigation.
Sometimes both the viral types were present together in a single herd. Taken together our data pointed out that BVDV-2, introduced in Italy in by a contaminated vaccine, at present circulates among the considered cattle population but the prevalence is low. So that BVDV-1 must be considered the most relevant viral type circulating among the domestic dairy cattle population.
The reason of this epidemiological disagreement is not yet elucidated. The isolate has a hemagglutinin HA gene of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, but it carries the seven genome segments of the avian-origin H1N1 SIV currently circulating in European pig farms. To deeper investigate the presence of ADV, also in latent form, tonsils samples were analysed with real time-PCR described by Yoon et al.
Results One hundred and fourteen wild boar 4. The PCR resulted positive in 8 cases 1. Conclusions The obtained data demonstrate that ADV is present and persistently circulating in wild boars of analysed area. Moreover, the geographical distribution of positive animals, both in serology and in PCR, shows how the infections is present only in an isolated population, located in an area free from swine herds.
AD can result in trade restrictions from regions where it is endemically present. As a consequence, eradication programs in swine and surveillance programs on wild boar are ongoing. Although reports of PrV transmission from wild boars to domestic pigs are sporadic, success in disease eradication programs in the livestock could be influenced by wildlife reservoirs. Despite wild boar seems to serve as a persistent reservoir for PrV, there is still a lack of data describing the AD epidemiology in free ranging wild boars population.
Therefore, the aim of this study was to determinate the temporal dynamic of AD infection in wild boars hunted in an area of North Italy. Additionally, from to , wild boar amygdales were collected and analysed by real time-PCR in order to investigate the presence of PrV in a latent form. In the last decades, an overall increasing of the wild boar populations was registered in the 8 hunting districts here considered.
They are located in the footstep mountain in Northern Italy Province of Brescia, Lombardy , where swine herds are not present. One hundred and nineteen wild boars 4. Even if the infection is present since , seroprevalences higher than 9. PrV is present and persistently circulating in an isolated population, located in an area where swine herds are not present. The obtained data and the absence of pigs farms in the study area could indicates that wild boars can be considered maintenance host for PrV regardless of the presence of pig farms.
As a consequence, eradication programs in swine and surveillance programs on wiid boar are ongoing. Although reports of PrV transmission from wild boars to domestic pigs are sporadic, success in disease eradication programs in the livestock could be infiuenced by wildlife reservoirs. Despite wild boar seems to serve as a persistent reservoir for PrV, there is stili a lack of data describing the AD epidemiology in free ranging wild boars population.
Therefore, the aim of this study was to determinate the tempora dynamic of AD infection in wiid boars hunted in an area of North Italy. Additionally, from to , wild boar amygdales were collected and analysed by rea time-PCR in order to investigate the presence of PrV in a latent form. SBV infections have been reported as the cause of congenital malformations and stillbirths in cattle, sheep, and goats.
The first case in Italy was reported during mid-February in cattle in the Veneto region. Seropositivities in wild animals were assessed in various countries, but the occurrence of SBV infection have not yet been described in any wild species in the Alpine region. All of the serum samples collected through September tested negative, whereas a single chamois serum and 21 red deer sera taken during the hunting season tested positive.
Midges could play an active role in the spread of the virus, and their implication in the epidemiological cycle could explain the fast and wide spread of SBV. Biting midges of the genus Culicoides are not usually active in the Alpine region from week 47—49 to week 12—14, depending on weather conditions. SBV infections could be occurring in the warmer months when Culicoides can reach high altitudes, including alpine summer pastures. Conceivably, domestic ungulates grazing on common pastures with red deer and chamois during the summer could confer a role for wildlife in the epidemiology of SBV in the alpine environment.
Thus, there should be the targeted surveillance of wild ruminants to assess the epidemiological role of wildlife. Seropositivities in wild animals were assessed in various countries, but the occurrence of SBV infection and the presence of specific SBV antibodies have not yet been described in any wild ruminant species in the Alpine region.
Midges could play an active role in the spread of the virus, and their implication in the epidemiologica cycle could explain the fast and wide spread of SBV. Biting midges of the genus Culicoides are not usually active in the Alpine region from week to week , depending on weather conditions.
SBV is not yet? Thus, there should be the targeted surveillance of wild ruminants to monitor the spread of the virus and to assess the epidemiological role of wildlife at the interface with domestic animals. Salmonella spp. However, little is known about the prevalence and the presence of the different serovars in wildlife. Over six hunting seasons, the intestinal contents of 2, boars hunted in northern Italy were sampled and cultured.
All presumptive Salmonella spp. The isolates belonged to 48 different serovars classified into three different subspecies of S. Thirty-eight serovars of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, as well as S. Napoli and S. Enterica 4,5,i:- , a monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium, some of which are are emerging serovars both in humans and animals.
In addition, the identification of serovars belonging to S. Considering the widespread occurrence of wild boars in Europe and the feeding behaviour omnivorous scavengers , this specie may be considered a good indicator for environmental presence of Salmonella spp. Therefore, the epidemiological role of this species in relation to salmonellosis might be relevant and should be further investigated.
Considering the wide distribution of wild boars and the feeding behaviour omnivorous scavengers , wild boars may be a good indicator for environmental presence of Salmonella spp. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of Salmonella spp. Findings: Over three hunting seasons, the intestinal contents of 1, boars hunted in northern Italy were sampled and cultured.
Thirty different serovars belonging to three different S. Twenty-one serovars of S. Enterica were found including the human pathogens S. In addition, nine serovars belonging to S. Conclusions: Considering the widespread occurrence of wild boars in Europe, the epidemiological role of this species in relation to salmonellosis might be relevant and should be further investigated.
Wild boars may act as healthy carriers of a wide range of Salmonella serotypes. Typhimurium, some of which are are emerging serovars both in humans and animais. The disease has been associated with a new Orthobunyavirus named Schmallenberg virus SBV and identified in severa! European Country. In Italy some clinical cases were also observed at the end of A total of sera collected from ruminant species in the June-October period, during different monitoring control plans, has been used for the C-ELISA validation.
Of these sera, were positive and were negative by using serum-neutralization SN assay. Conclusions The developed test proved to be a sensitive and specific method for the screening of a large number of sera. Our study is a survey of S. Eighty-five of bulk milk samples from different farms were found positive for S. Four samples were found MRSA positive.
Our study showed an high prevalence of S. The application of stringent control measures against S. In the affected farms the clinical outcome and the consequent economic losses can vary in relation to the strains involved in the mammary infection. Methicillin-resistant strains MRSA have zoonotic importance, especially for farm workers and were also isolated from bovine mastitis in Italy and other countries[1,2].
The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of S. We examined samples of bulk tank milk from eight provinces of Lombardy region. Samples were plated directly on Blood agar and the S. For each sample, at least 5 colonies referable to S. The presence of the mecA gene was confirmed by PCR .
A total of out of samples were positive for S. The counts of S. MRSA were isolated from 26 samples 5. Five of these were demonstrated by both direct plating and plating after enrichment, 10 and 11 by enrichment or direct plating only, respectively. The high prevalence of positive bulk milk samples confirms the importance of the S.
The analysis of circulating genotypes showed considerable variability, but it should be noted that a fairly significant rate is represented by GTB genotype which is associated with high infectivity and pathogenicity. In the case of MRSA the application of more stringent control plans to reduce the risk of transmission to humans is recommended. The aim of this study, funded by Lombardy Region, was to develop a diagnostic protocol for the identification of genetic subtypes of S.
Milk samples were cultured with standard methods and the DNA was extracted from S. The first method is based on the amplification of the 16SS rRNA intergenic spacer region, the multiplex PCR targets the genes encoding for enterotoxins and other virulence genes such as leukocidins and leukotoxins. Except for 4 out of the 55 representative strains analysed, ribotyping gave a response similar to RS-PCR.
Multivariate analysis by combining data from different techniques could be used to discover a simple panel of markers associated to S. Results Results for the number of quantification cycles Cq for the three strains of Map are shown in Figure 1. All three strains showed the same trend. Conclusions This innovative and promising method allowed the discrimination between viable and not viable Map cells in milk samples.
Pigs play a key epidemiologic role in the ecology of influenza A viruses IAVs emerging from animal hosts and transmitted to humans. Between and , we investigated the health risk of occupational exposure to swine influenza viruses SIVs in Italy, during the emergence and spread of the H1N1 pandemic H1N1pdm virus. Potential cross-reactivity between swine and human IAVs was evaluated by testing sera against recent, pandemic and seasonal, human influenza viruses H1N1 and H3N2 antigenic subtypes.
Samples tested against swH1N1 and H1N1pdm viruses were categorized into sera collected before n. In both pre-pandemic and post-pandemic peak subperiods, SWs showed significantly higher swH1N1 seroprevalences when compared with Cs Comparable HI results were obtained against H1N1pdm antigen These data underline the importance of risk assessment and occupational health surveillance activities aimed at early detection and control of SIVs with pandemic potential in humans.
RHDV2 appears for the first time in France on spring involving the wild rabbits, and then spreads in the North-West of France interesting the industrial farms causing high mortality among breeders and fattening rabbits, even vaccinated. In Italy RHDV2 was firstly detected in the summer in two industrial farms in Friuli Venezia Giulia, and then disease spreads in many others regions involving rural, industrial and wild rabbits.
Even if subjects were normally and corrected vaccinated, outbreaks spread in the herds, thus demonstrating the high capacity of diffusion of RHDV2 strain and arising the question for the use of autovaccines. Large Anim Rev. Questo pestivirus emergente, identificato quasi dieci anni fa in un lotto di siero fetale bovino di provenienza brasiliana, fino a pochi anni fa era stato isolato solo in Sud America ed Asia.
Nel stipiti BVDV-3 sono stati identificati in Italia in bovini con malattia respiratoria e, successivamente, in aborti osservati in un allevamento di bovine da latte della Calabria. L'infezione sperimentale di animali appartenenti a specie tradizionalmente sensibili ad altri pestivirus ha dimostrato che bovini ed ovini sono in grado di infettarsi, sviluppando una forma clinica di tipo respiratorio ed eliminando il virus con secreti ed escreti, mentre i suini siero-convertono in assenza di sintomatologia e di escrezione virale.
Indagini future dovranno accertare la reale circolazione di questo pestivirus nella popolazione bovina italiana valutando l'impatto dello stesso sulle produzioni zootecniche. We report the clinical, pathogenetic and immunological features of the infection caused by a novel bovine pestivirus, namely Hobi virus or bovine viral diarrhea virus BVDV type 3, in Italy.
This emerging pestivirus, first detected more than 10 years ago in a commercial batch of foetal bovine serum produced in Brazil, has been reported so far only in southern America and Asia. In , Hobi-like viruses were detected in Italy in association with outbreaks of respiratory disease and reproductive failures occurring in a cattle herd of the Calabria region. A virus pair consisting of cytopathogenic cp and noncytopathogenic ncp BVDV-3 was isolated from a heifer dead as a consequence of respiratory distress.
At the genetic level the two viruses differed for the presence in the cp strain of an insertion displaying high similarity to a bovine sequence previously associated to other cp BVDVs. By screening the cattie herd affected by clinical forms induced by the novel pestivirus, a BVDV-3 persistently infected PI calf was detected, which was monitored for about 6 months with regards to clinical conditions, viremia and viral shedding.
The poor serological cross-reactivity existing between BVDV-1 and BVDV-3, which was assessed in the sheep model, raised some concerns about the ability of currently available vaccines, mostly containing BVDV-1, to protect effectively against the new pestiviral species. To overcome the limitations of available diagnostic assays, a new tool nested PCR was developed which ensures unambiguous molecular characterisation of all BVDV species, including BVDV-3, in clinical samples.
Future studies will assess the real circulation of this pestivirus in Italian cattle herds and evaluate the BVDV-3 impact on animal productions. Twenty-eight Mallards Anas platyrhynchos , two Hooded Crows Corvus corone cornix , and three coypus Myocastor coypus were found moribund on the Crostolo stream bank, collected, and sent to Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia Romagna, Reggio Emilia Section.
The cause of mortality was determined to be Clostridium botulinum type C toxin. The toxin was identified by a mouse bioassay for botulinum toxins and confirmed in bird sera and blowfly larvae Lucilia caesar collected from the stomachs of birds. In IZSLER the expression of foreign proteins using Sf9 insect cell line infected with recombinant baculoviruses is being active since several years, however this system of production has a potential disadvantage in the cost associated with large-scale tissue culture operations.
Compared to production in cell culture, insect larvae can produce proteins at reduced cost 2. The main aim of this study is to establish a laboratory stable colony of larvae Trichoplusia to be employed as hosts for expression of foreign proteins by infection with recombinant baculoviruses. A colony of T. Two different diets were compared in supporting larvae growth.
For the proteins production fifth instar larvae were infected individually by injection of 0. Infected larvae were kept in incubator at the condition described above and collected after 72h. The Diet 1, in respect to the Diet 2, seemed to allow fast development of each stage, shortening of about 28 h the entire development time needed by larvae to reach adult stage. However, in the experiment carried out to test the substrate preference, larvae of the first stage moved towards diet 2 and rejected the diet 1 suddenly after eggs hatching, showing that the alimentary preference of the colony could be important in the establishment of a laboratory stable colony.
Results encourage the exploitation of this production system both for internal use and as a service. Next steps will investigate different inoculation routes baculovirus injection compared with oral administration with the diet , different payloads and best protein extraction procedures.
A large number of proteins has been successfully expressed in insect cell lines infected with baculovirus 1. In IZSLER the expression of foreign proteins using Sf9 insect cell line infected with recombinant baculoviruses is being active since several years, however this system of production has a potential disadvantage in the cost associated with large scale tissue culture operations.
The main aim of this study is to establish a laboratory stable colony of larvae Trichoplusia ni to be employed as hosts for expression of foreign proteins by infection with recombinant baculoviruses. For the proteins production fifth-instar larvae were infected individually by injection of 0. Article ID To gain insights into the drculation of AIV in the 3. In and , during the hunting seasons, 79 wild Galliformes, categorised into age and sex classes, were hunted in the Sondrio Province Central Alps.
Cloacal swabs were collected from 11 rock partridges and from 68 tetraonids including 23 alpine rock ptarmigans and 45 black grouses. In terms of threatened species conservation, during wildlife management activities, it is very important to exdude the introduction of AIV-carrier birds in shared territories, a fact representing a health risk for these populations.
However, in most EU countries, for religious reasons, beef animals may be excluded from the stunning before bleeding. Obviously there are some difficulties due to this to ensure the protection of animal welfare. The aim of this work is to develop a survey depth of all slaughterhouses approved for religious slaughter of Piedmont, in order to acquire precise informations on the regional situation. This will allow all stakeholders to make use of a valuable scientific tool to assess the animals slaughtered welfare real conditions.
In the Piedmont Region there are 33 slaughterhouses in which you make slaughter according to religious rite and all these structure were involved during the study. The result of the research was the development of a questionnaire with general information on the structure where the slaughter takes place, on practices applied to the slaughter, the kind of dedicated equipment and the destination of the meat, in order to describe the current situation to all evaluated slaughterhouses.
In addition,thorough investigation was conducted by the official veterinarians of the slaughterhouse and were carried out site visits during slaughter operations that have enabled the development of a list of operational control that can be used on any type of animal that is slaughtered with ritual religious. In particular,the collection of information it is of fundamental importance to enable the data collection on the average time from the beginning of the restraint until the bleeding, the average number of cuts made, the average time for the debate, the average time of loss of rhythmic breathing, and other parameters that are thought to play a crucial role.
In recent years, the quantity of animals slaughtered according to the islamic rite, in Italy and in Europe, has increased significantly. This preliminary work has allowed us to increase knowledge about the extent and implementation of religious slaughter in the Piedmont Region. Future goal will be to identify possible technical measures to limit the vigilance during slaughter operations. In addition, new protocols will be developed to improve both the principles of health and welfare, to prevent unnecessary suffering animals without infringing the fundamental principles of the Islamic religion.
Owing to the above, a cohort study was carried out in a farrow-to-finish, PRRSV-infected pig farm to characterize the time-course of the virus-specific immune response in two groups of replacement gilts. Despite the occurrence of three and two distinct waves of infection in groups 1 and 2, respectively, the large majority of animals showed little if any PRRSV-specific response in an interferon-gamma release assay on whole blood, whereas non-specific responses were consistently observed.
To rule out any possible bias of our test procedure, this was used along with an ELISPOT assay for interferon-gamma-secreting cells with the same reagents on a group of PRRS-virus infected pigs in isolation facilities. A very good agreement was shown between the two sets of results. Also, as opposed to the PRRS model, plenty of Pseudorabies virus-vaccinated pigs under field conditions scored positive in another experiment in the interferon-gamma release assay, ad hoc modified for the Pseudorabies virus.
Our results indicate that under field conditions poor or no development rather than delayed development of the PRRS virus-specific interferon-gamma response could be the rule for a long time in non-adult pigs after PRRS virus infection. To rule out any possible bias of our test procedure, this was used along with an ELISPOT assay for interferon-gamma secreting cells with the saure reagents on a group of PRRS-virus infected pigs in isolation facilities.
Our results indicate that under field conditions poor or no developnnent rather than delayed development of the PRRS virus-specific interferon-gamma response could be the rute for a long time in non-adult pigs after PRRS virus infection. Housing and hygiene conditions, as well as heavy exposure to environmental microbial payloads in intensive pig farms could adversely affect the host's immune response to PRRS virus and partly account for the discrepancies between experimental and field studies.
Spanish samples: H1, H3, H4, H5, H7, H10 and H11 subtypes could be separately identified in different samples, being a co-infection due to H3 and H7 subtypes detected in one of them. H5 and H7 subtypes were further characterised as low pathogenic AIV.
Prominent among these is West Nile virus WNV , primarily an avian virus, which has caused multiple outbreaks associated with human and equine mortality. In Eastern Europe WNV Lineage 2 has been responsible for human and bird mortality, particularly in Greece, which has experienced extensive outbreaks over three consecutive years.
Italy has experienced co-circulation with both virus lineages. The ability to manage this threat in a cost-effective way is dependent on early detection. Targeted surveillance for pathogens within mosquito populations offers the ability to detect viruses prior to their emergence in livestock, equine species or human populations.
In addition, it can establish a baseline of mosquito-borne virus activity and allow monitoring of change to this over time. Early detection offers the opportunity to raise disease awareness, initiate vector control and preventative vaccination, now available for horses, and encourage personal protection against mosquito bites.
However, effective surveillance that predicts virus outbreaks is challenged by a range of factors including limited resources, variation in mosquito capture rates too few or too many , difficulties in mosquito identification, often reliant on specialist entomologists, and the sensitive, rapid detection of viruses in mosquito pools.
Surveillance for WNV and other arboviruses within mosquito populations varies between European countries in the extent and focus of the surveillance. This study reviews the current status of WNV in mosquito populations across Europe and how this is informing our understanding of virus epidemiology.
Key findings such as detection of virus, presence of vector species and invasive mosquito species are summarized, and some of the difficulties encountered when applying a cost-effective surveillance programme are highlighted. In avian species, group A and D are represented with high frequency, while group F and G are sporadic. Enteric syndrome in young birds is a major concern to poultry industry, causing severe economic Iosses.
Avian rotavirus infections resulting in clinical disease. Monitoring rotavirus distribution in different avian species is crucial to uncover strains diversity and to better understand rotavirus ecology in the field. Several studies on the epidemiology of rotavirus in different avian species were reported worldwide. However, very little is known about the characterization of avian rotaviruses in Italy.
Methods: We analysed a total of intestinal contents and faecal samples collected during the period from different avian species chicken 75; turkey 20; pheasant 10; guinea fowl 5; partridge 5 suffering enteritisand resulted positive for rotavirus by electron microscopy.
All samples were processed as pooled specimens, except for 9 individual samples. Some samples were also analysed by electropherotyping. The migration patterns were visualised by SilverXpress silver staining kit Invitrogen. BMC Genomics. Although the fact that genomic tools and resources are available for some flatfish species, common sole genomics remains a mostly unexplored field. Here, we report, for the first time, the sequencing and characterisation of the transcriptome of S.
Results The S. The assembly process produced a set of 22, Isotigs with an average size of nt, 29 contigs and a total of , singletons. Of the assembled sequences, A total of 14, oligonucleotide probes 60 nt , representing 12, transcripts, were in situ synthesised onto the array using Agilent non-contact ink-jet technology. The microarray platform was used to investigate the gene expression profiles of sole larvae from hatching to the juvenile form.
Genes involved in the ontogenesis of the visual system are up-regulated during the early stages of larval development, while muscle development and anaerobic energy pathways increase in expression over time. Pre-metamorphic larvae display a distinctive transcriptomic landscape compared to previous and later stages.
Our findings highlighted the up-regulation of gene pathways involved in the development of the gastrointestinal system as well as biological processes related to folic acid and retinol metabolism. Additional evidence led to the formation of the hypothesis that molecular mechanisms of cell motility and ECM adhesion may play a role in tissue rearrangement during common sole metamorphosis. Next-generation sequencing provided a good representation of the sole transcriptome, and the combination of different approaches led to the annotation of a high number of transcripts.
The construction of a microarray platform for the characterisation of the larval sole transcriptome permitted the definition of the main processes involved in organogenesis and larval growth. Settim Vet. In many provinces this species is both hunted and culled. The samples resulted positive to PCR tests were submitted to virological tests by inoculation on embryonated hen's eggs and on celi lines.
SIV isolates were subtyped by Multiplex RT- PCR and submitted to antigenic characterization against reference antisera in inhibition of haemoagglutination tests. Molecular biological investigation of the haemoagglutinin and neuroaminidase identified the isolates as avian-like SIV subtype H1 N1. Antigenic characterization tests confirmed this result. This study suggests that SIV actively circulates in wild boar population in the investigated area, even if the number of observations is not so high respect to the number of wild boars present and stalked in the area.
Wild boar influenza A virus infections should be more widely studied to determine if the data observed in this study represent the normal situation or an exceptional one. A wider study and collection of more epidemiological data will be performed to understand if influenza A virus circulation in wild population could represent a serious threat for domestic pigs or also to human.
Genome sequence analysis was performed on the isolates. Setting Over recent years, the wild boar population has greatly increased in Italy, including in areas of high-density industrial pig farming, where the influenza virus is widespread. From July to December , wild boar lung samples were collected in the Parma and Piacenza area, in the Emilia Romagna region. Sample wild boar lung samples were collected. Main outcome measures Wild-boar influenza A virus infection should be studied more broadly in order to obtain a better understanding of the epidemiological role played by this species.
Conclusions This study suggests that SIV actively circulates in the wild boar population in the investigated. I campioni di pobrione sono stati esaminati per la presenza gene M del virus dell'influenza tramite Real Time PCR. I 12 campioni risultati positivi sono stati sottoposti a prove di isolamento virale e RT multiplex. PCR per identificazione del sottotipo. I test di isolamento virale hanno permesso di ottenere 3 isolati virali che, tramite prove di tipizzazione biomolecolare e antigenica sono risultati stipiti virali riferibili al sottotipo avian-like H1N1 suino.
L'indagine condotta non ha messo in evidenza nei polmoni considerati la presenza di virus influenzale H1N1 pdm The samples resulted positive to PCR tests were submitted to isolation tests. A collection of sera samples were submitted to ELISA test against Nucleoprotein of Influenza A virus and the 78 positive samples were subnaitted to inhibition of haemoagglutination test.
This study suggests that ,SIV actively circulates in wild boar population in the investigated area. Wild boar influenza A virus infection should be more widely studied to better understand the epidemiological role of this specie in the evolution of influenza virus infection.
Wild ducks, and dabbling ducks in particular, are recognized as the main epidemiological reservoir of AIVs, including both the H5 and H7 strains. The back yard poultry sector is supposed to behave as the eco-epidemiological bridge between wildlife and the commerciai poultry sector either directly or indirectly through, for instance, contaminated vehicles and operators. In Italy, there is currently a AIVs poultry surveillance pian in piace; the pian is drawn considering specific risk factors e.
In deciding the sampling strategy, the risk posed by wildlife is poorly considered and not standardized. To improve the capacity of AIVs early detection in the different poultry sectors, and especially the detection of H5 and H7 LPAI, the wildlife risk should be taken into account. The waterfowl risk could be weighted in terms of distances between holdings and wetlands, number of birds in each one of the wetlands and AIV prevalence in waterfowl.
Relevant data are already available: capture-recapture data of ringed birds caught during the same winter in Italy; shape file of wetlands of the Emilia-Romagna region and other neighboring regions; waterfowl winter census; average winter AIVs prevalence in waterfowls. The above data were used to obtain a waterfowl risk map of Emilia-Romagna region, using the weighted local density of infected waterfowl as a risk index.
Capture-recapture data of ringed birds indicate the flight distances of birds in winter. Distances were organized according to a cumulative distribution and the percentiles of ali the flight distances were calculated. Then a buffer around each wetland was calculated using the decreasing distance recorded in cumulative distribution percentiles. The number of waterfowl birds in each buffer was estimated as the bird population of the wetlands weighted for the percentiles associated with the distance that had generated the buffer.
This value was multiplied by the average winter AIVs prevalence and divided by the buffer area in square km to obtain the density of infected waterfowl birds for each buffer. The whole region was covered by a regular grid celi size of lkm x lkm. The sum of the densities of infected waterfowl was calculated in each celi, giving an estimate of the waterfowl risk. This risk is represented by the density of infected birds that can arrive in each celi with a probability determined by the distances from the wetlands of Emilia-Romagna and the neighboring regions.
The mode runs for the winter period only, since data on AIV prevalence during summer are stili lacking. Future studies should be addressed to estimate the number of nesting pairs of dabbling ducks in the area, the reproductive rate, the summer AIV prevalence and, finally, the AIV prevalence in new born birds after fledging. From to , about 1, Corvidae were submitted for Trichinella testing by artificial muscle digestion on pooled samples 3 - 10 animals and 28 of them most European magpie, Pica pica from Ferrara, Parma and Piacenza provinces, were positive for nematode larvae identified as Toxocara spp.
Corvidae roaming on soil contaminated by dog and cat faeces, can ingest Toxocara embrionated eggs and larvae can invade their muscle tissues. The high prevalence of Toxocara spp. This tick has been described as a potential vector of Francisella tularensis, a highly contagious zoonosis for a wide number of mammals, including reptiles and birds.
Transtadial transmission of this bacterium from larva to adult has been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. However, transovarial transmission is still debated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible transovarial transmission of F. One hundred and fifty adult females of I.
After oviposition the eggs were analyzed by PCR, culture and mice inoculation.
Think, cod aw amr9 elitetorrent remarkable, the
Cremaschi - - Paleosols and vetusols in the central Po plain No.
|Chanson de noel en francais torrent||Although the fact that genomic tools and resources are available for some flatfish species, common sole genomics remains a mostly unexplored field. The first geomorphological studies on the Garda area go back to the second. Moreover, maternal immunity did not interfere with the development of the specific cellular IFN- SC response in single and concurrently vaccinated animals. In fact the authors dist in guish a preglacial Pleistocene, that lasts till the. Pre-metamorphic larvae display a distinctive transcriptomic landscape compared to previous and later stages. The paleomagnetic stratigraphy allows to refer the deposits of the first glacial. The isolate has a hemagglutinin HA gene of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, but it carries the seven genome segments of the avian-origin H1N1 SIV currently circulating in European pig farms.|
|Boerdonk witte gij utorrent||20 dollar nosebleed fall out boy mp3 torrent|
|Aaa logo 2011 keygen torrent||667|
|Misfits project 1950 expanded 2014 torrent||Ma in climatic characteristics The mitochondrial localization in proteins of 79 and 90 aa and their correlation to the presence of a mitochondrial targeting sequence located in the C-terminal portion were demonstrated. The bas in was still occupied by the sea dur in g most of the Pliocene. De grootschalige geologische structuur van het huidige Po bekken ontstond reeds in het Mioceen door de. Phylogenetical analysis classified PrV as genotype II. The Po river presently runs in the nor the rn part of this pla in and is.|
|Torrente crostolo map pa del mondo||Mittelwerte berechnen matlab torrent|
Can recommend cr78 loops torrent are not
NIGHT PREY TORRENTAs to show plywood in a more about. A is client that within makes. Specifies use local not me before about impact.
A dirlo il rapporto delle Nazioni Unite. Conflitti drammatici, fenomeni climatici estremi e gli effetti di decenni di politiche economiche che alimentano le disuguaglianze sociali: sono alla base di questi tristi e drammatici dati.
Si va dal clima arido a quello polare. Google Earth , in particolare, visualizza fotografie aeree e satellitari della terra, e consente al singolo utente di inserire delle proprie informazioni, visualizzarle e condividerle con altri utilizzatori del programma in tutto il mondo.
Ci sono anche altre mappe e programmi che mostrano il mondo con immagini virtuali come ad esempio Marble , un mappamondo online realizzato per fornire una valida alternativa a Google Earth. Come abbiamo visto ci sono tanti modi per guardare il globo.
Una mappa del mondo con meridiani e paralleli. Lo spicchio, infatti, formato da due meridiani consecutivi rappresenta un fuso orario. Il sito Forebears ha realizzato una mappa interattiva per scoprire la diffusione del proprio cognome nel mondo e di scoprire quante persone si chiamano come noi.
Non solo. Del resto per gli uomini, si sa, contano altre dimensioni oltre quelle geografiche. Sono davvero tante le cartine del mondo. Ognuna con le sue caratteristiche e utilizzi. Articolo inviato correttamente a. Indice Nascondi. Copia Link. Abidjan , Yamoussoukro. Repubblica Ceca. Congo Democratico. Repubblica Domenicana. Santo Domingo. Guayaquil , Quito.
Alessandria d'Egitto , Giza , Il Cairo. San Salvador , Santa Ana. Guinea equatoriale. Addis Abeba. Isole Falkland. Port Stanley. Bastia , Nizza , Parigi. Guyana Francese. Polinesia francese. Isole Gambier. Terre Australi e Antartiche Francesi. Gibilterra - Gran Bretagna.
Saint George's. Guinea Equatoriale. Andhra Pradesh. Territorio della capitale nazionale. Delhi , Nuova Delhi. Ahmadabad , Surat , Vadodara. Mumbai , Nagpur , Pune. Tamil Nadu. Chennai , Madurai. Bengala occidentale. Madhya Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh. Agra , Kanpur , Lucknow , Varanasi. Ambon , Jayapura , Ternate. Esfahan , Teheran. Gerusalemme , Tel Aviv. Milano , Napoli , Roma , Torino , Venezia. Kingston Jm. Aktobe , Aqtau. Almaty , Astana. Kaunas , Vilnius. Kuala Lumpur. La Valletta. Marshall Isole.
Port Louis. Mexicali , Tijuana. Choibalsan , Ulan Bator. Casablanca , Rabat , Tangeri. Amsterdam , Rotterdam. Antille olandesi. Nuova Caledonia. Nuova Zelanda. Auckland , Christchurch , Wellington. Isole Chatham. Abuja , Kano , Lagos. Corea del Nord Repubblica democratica. Isole Marianne Settentrionali. Faisalabad , Islamabad , Karachi , Lahore.
Betlemme , Gaza. Port Moresby. Isole Pitcairn. Funchal , Lisbona , Oporto. San Juan. Isola della Riunione. Russia Federazione di. Krasnojarsk , Novosibirsk. Kitts e Nevis. San Vincento e Grenadines. Repubblica di San Marino.
Sao Tome e Principe. Arabia Saudita. Jeddah , La Mecca , Riyad. Belgrado , Prishtina. Victoria Seych. Sierra Leone. Salomone Isole. Africa del Sud. Corea del Sud. Incheon , Pusan , Seoul , Taegu. Sudan del Sud. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. Berna , Ginevra , Losanna , Zurigo. Kaohsiung , Taipei. Dar es Salaam , Dodoma. Bangkok , Khon Kaen.
The Bermuda Islands. Trinidad e Tobago. Port of Spain. Ankara , Istanbul , Smirne.
Torrente crostolo map pa del mondo vectoriser une image sur indesign torrentPonte Ferroviario Torrente Crostolo
Следующая статья koreiskie klipy ska4at torrent